Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Posts Tagged ‘Engine’

Harley-Davidson Two-Cycle Engine

When you think about Harley-Davidson motorcycles, it’s most often about the V-Twin engines, the retro-styling and the inescapable sound.

Many forget that the motor company manufactured a lightweight two-stroke engine and runabout motorcycle for 15-years.

In 1947 as a 1948 model, if you purchased an entry level runabout motorcycle it came with a two-stroke 125 cc single piston motor.  There were two motorcycles engines built — the Model 125 or S-125 (eventually called the ST-125).  The Model 165 or ST-165 replaced the ST-125 in 1953 when the engine size was increased to 165 cc. The ST models were the motor companies idea of how America motorcycle riding should be accomplished after WWII.

The Hummer

So how did Harley-Davidson develop or get the 2-stroke design?

The name “DKW” comes from a two-stroke engine built in 1919 by the Danish engineer Jørgen Skafte Rasmussen, in Saxony, Germany. It was a small engine, which Rasmussen called Das Kliene Wunder (the little marvel) that gave DWK its start in the motorcycle industry.

As WWII drew to a close in 1945, DKW’s factories had either been damaged or occupied by the Red Army. The Soviets took DKW plans, tools, and personnel back to Moscow where copies of the 125 were soon produced. The Soviet version of the 125 was first released in 1946 as the Moskva M1A and later as the K-125.

AMF Merger – 1969

As part of Germany’s war reparations, Harley-Davidson acquired the rights to the German DKW three-speed, two-stroke 125 cc Single.  Harley product shipments began in 1948 and thousands were manufactured in various incarnation until production ceased in 1966.

An updated model called the Hummer was added to Harley’s lineup in 1955, and subsequently all Harley single-cylinder two-strokes built between 1948 and 1966 incorrectly have come to be known as Hummers. The Hummer was named after Dean Hummer, a Harley-Davidson dealer in Omaha, Nebraska who led national Harley two-stroke sales.  The Hummer was very basic — it had magneto ignition and was sold without battery, electric horn, turn signals, or a brake light.

The Topper Scooter

In 1960, Harley-Davidson consolidated the Model 165 and Hummer lines into the Super-10, introduced the Topper scooter, and bought fifty percent of Aermacchi’s motorcycle division. Importation of Aermacchi’s 250 cc horizontal single began in 1961. The motorcycle had Harley-Davidson badges and was marketed as the Harley-Davidson Sprint. The engine of the Sprint was increased to 350 cc in 1969 and would remain that size until 1974, when the four-stroke Sprint was discontinued.

In 1962, Harley-Davidson built the Ranger, an off-road motorcycle without lights, made only for a year.  It had an extra-low final-drive ratio of 7.0:1 (12-tooth countershaft gear and 84-tooth rear sprocket) had neither a lighting system or front fender. Speculation was this motorcycle was built to consume the motor company supply of 165 cc engines, which would not be needed for any other models.

Aermacchi-built Harley-Davidson — The  Sprint

After the Pacer and Scat models were discontinued at the end of 1965, the Bobcat became the last of Harley-Davidson’s American-made two-stroke motorcycles. The Bobcat was the last of the 125-based Harley’s and manufactured only in the 1966 model year.  It was also the only 125-based Harley with a standard dual seat.

In 1969, American Machine and Foundry (AMF) bought Harley-Davidson, streamlined production, and slashed the workforce. The tactic resulted in a labor strike and lower-quality bikes.  Sales and quality declined, and the company nearly went bankrupt.

Harley-Davidson replaced their American-made lightweight two-stroke motorcycles with the Aermacchi-built two-stroke powered M-65, M-65S, and Rapido. The M-65 had a semi-step-through frame and tank. The M-65S was a M-65 with a larger tank that eliminated the step-through feature. The Rapido was a larger bike with a 125 cc engine. The Aermacchi-built Harley-Davidsons became entirely two-stroke powered when the 250 cc two-stroke SS-250 replaced the four-stroke 350 cc Sprint in 1974.

Harley-Davidson purchased full control of Aermacchi’s motorcycle production in 1974 and continued making two-stroke motorcycles there until 1978, when they sold the facility to Cagiva and ending it’s run of two-stroke engines.

Photos courtesy of and taken at Harley-Davidson Museum

For additional Harley-Davidson V-Twin Engine History see this page.

Sources:
Craig Hammitt LinkedIN Article
Wikipedia
Cycle World Article (1993) Article

All Rights Reserved (C) Northwest Harley Blog

Read Full Post »

Brace

News about Harley-Davidson during the month of August has been a bit of a wild ride.

There was the consent decree and $15M settlement with the EPA. Then the announcement that Harley expanded the list of bikes on recall that may have been built with defective hydraulic clutch systems.  Then the biggest engine-product launch for the company since 1988, when the Twin Cam made its debut.

And now today, the day before the Milwaukee Rally kicks off, Harley-Davidson announced that approximately 200 employees will face layoffs starting in October as the company adjusts motorcycle production due to slower sales.

According to various news reports including Rick Barrett, of the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, the union stated many of the layoffs will take place at Harley’s assembly plant in York, Pa., and some will occur at the engine plant in Menomonee Falls, where the company employs approximately 1,000 people, as well as in Tomahawk.

Given that the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally attendance was down roughly 40% from a year ago (some of which was expected), suggest that some riders are busy doing other things than throttling down rural America’s roads to a rally which makes the launch of its Milwaukee-Eight engine motorcycles key to amp up any new motorcycle sales.

Photo courtesy of Sturgill Simpson Video.

All Rights Reserved (C) Northwest Harley Blog

Read Full Post »

UPDATED: April 24, 2017Added a tab “Engine History” on the blog home page with updated V-Twin engine history including the Milwaukee Eight.

"M-8" top view showing tubular rockers

“M-8” top view showing tubular rockers

It happens every year and often it’s big news.

This year the launch of the Harley-Davidson 2017 motorcycle line-up is anchored by the new Milwaukee-Eight™107 and Milwaukee-Eight™114 power plants.

A couple weeks ago I posted about a new eight-valve Big Twin and now we know the rumors are true.  The displacement of the standard version is 107ci (1,750cc) or in the CVO version it’s 114ci (1,870cc). The 2017 touring models get these engines first and may waterfall down to other models later in the year.  The 107 uses precision oil-cooled cylinder heads and will be in the Street Glides, Road Glides, the Electra Glide Ultra Classic, and Freewheeler trikes.  A Twin-Cooled version with liquid-cooled cylinder heads and radiators will be in the Ultra Limited models, the Road Glide Ultra, and Tri Glide models.  The CVO Limited and CVO Street Glide models will have the Twin-Cooled Milwaukee-Eight 114.

M-8: Four-valve combustion chamber and the dual spark plugs

M-8: Four-valve combustion chamber and the dual spark plugs

You might recall that the last major design evolution of the Twin Cam — and a significant part of the Project RUSHMORE and marketing campaign — was anchored on improving power plant cooling.  This took the form of circulating liquid coolant in tubes around each cylinder head’s hot exhaust valve seat and then to external radiators.  Many riders neglected to notice much in the way of decreased heat from this method of trying to get more power out of the 103.

So let’s talk details of the new eight-valve “M-8”.
ksksksksk

M-8:  Cutaway shows cooling areas of circulating liquid (Blue)

The 107 (3.937 x 4.375-inch bore and stroke) is cooled by pumping oil through it and then through a “chin radiator” ahead of the crankcase. In the 107 and 114 Twin-Cooled models (the 114 has 4.016 x 4.500-inch cylinder dimen­sions), water/antifreeze coolant is circulated through a cored heart-shaped passage that encircles the exhaust valves and then through radiators mounted forward to either side of the engine, as we’ve seen.  The new engine uses a nearly flat chamber of minimum surface area with four valves and abandons the large surface area of the traditional deep, modified hemi two-valve combustion chamber found in the old design.  The new engine operates at high compression ratios (as high as 10.5:1).  As a result, the 2017 Touring motorcycles will provide 10 percent more torque.  Harley states that will translate into two to three bike lengths faster from 0–60 mph, and one to two lengths quicker in top-gear 60–80-mph roll-ons along with improved fuel economy.

Overall airflow capacity of the “M-8” is 50 percent greater versus previous Big Twin engines, and the throttle body now has a 55mm bore.  Each cylinder has an acceleration-type knock sensor along with ECM control which protects the engine from detonation.  The new system is an improvement over the previous ion-sensing knock detection.  The exhaust components, including the catalyst, have been relocated to help move engine heat away from rider and the new engines have a single four-lobe camshaft with automatic hydraulic tensioner in place of the Twin Cam’s pair which will help reduced mechanical noise.

And in a first for the rubber-mounted Big Twin is a single counter-rotating internal balancer.  It’s meant to eliminate 75 percent of the engine’s primary shaking force.  In addition, idle rpm has been cut from 1,000 to 850 rpm all in a effort to give riders improved engine smoothness.  Other engine items of note is a new higher capacity alternator along with a new 1.6 kW (2.14 hp) starter that replaces the previous 1.2 kW (1.6 hp) units.  There is a self-torque-boosting clutch with Brembo hydraulic actuation for a lighter lever pull and the engine ECM has been changed from a mapped system to torque-based which will be interpreted as a call for a specific torque level, not a specific throttle angle.

On the motorcycle side, the front and rear suspension is new.  The new 49mm fork contains “dual bending valve fork technology” and uses cartridge-style variable-orifice damping valves, which Harley claims will deliver improved control at low speed without harshness over sharper bumps.  This wasn’t achievable with the old system of fixed damping.  Touring fork travel is 4.6 inches on standard models and 3.9 inches on low models.

After doing a quick H-D web site scan on the CVO Street Glide and CVO Limited models — it looks like the MSRP price went up $1K from 2016 ($36,799) to 2017 ($37,799).  The same $1K increase is also shown for the CVO Limited ($39,999 to $40,999).

Only you can decide if the new 117 engine, the new suspension along with the radio power adjustment warrants the price increase.

Photos courtesy of H-D.  Engine detail/stats courtesy of Cycle World.

All Rights Reserved (C) Northwest Harley Blog

Read Full Post »

H-D new engine -- “Milwaukee-Eight”

H-D new engine — “Milwaukee-Eight”

According to the rumor mill, Harley-Davidson is set to release a new engine in certain touring models for 2017.

The new engine is called the “Milwaukee-Eight”.

The engine will have four valves per cylinder and be increased to 107 cubic inches, or 1753cc.There have been seven distinct engine designs from the motor company since 1914, and Harley-Davidson has been consistent with air-cooled, pushrod driven, two valve per cylinder designs.  The new engine is the eighth in the line and may explain the naming convention. The new engine will be air cooled, but the increase in the number of valves will help make the new engine compliant with increasingly more stringent emissions laws.

The official unveiling is reportedly to occur in a couple of weeks when Harley-Davidson rolls out the new 2017 models.

Photo courtesy of Harley-Davidson and motorcyclelife.com.au

All Rights Reserved (C) Northwest Harley Blog

Read Full Post »

joining metal exhaust line components

Joining metal exhaust line components

In the exhaust business there are tradeoffs between looks and performance.  

We all know that an exhaust system design has a big impact on engine performance.  Header pipe diameter, bend radius, pipe length, muffler volume and design of the baffle all effect performance.

We’re seeing a lot of innovation in fabricating from lightweight stainless steel, carbon steel, aluminum, chromoly along with coated high temperature ceramic exhaust systems.

There is a French based company (Faurecia) in the small town of Dexter, Missouri that specializes in emission control technology and manufactures exhaust systems for the auto industry.  Through-out the years they’ve also made exhaust components for Harley-Davidson.

Faurecia - Dexter, Missouri

Faurecia – Dexter, Missouri

According to this reportthe company recently won a contract to manufacture exhaust systems for the newly designed Harley-Davidson – 2017 “Slingshot” series – which is currently in the planning stage.  This is an exhaust system for the next generation of Harley-Davidson’s motorcycles and Faurecia works closely with the Harley new product teams to get them industrialized at the Dexter plant.

Faurecia is an innovative company and has developed what amounts to “noise-canceling headphones” for tail pipes.  It’s not clear if H-D is looking to implement this technology on the 2017 products?

Faurecia engineering veteran, Phil LeBeau was quoted in the report saying; “The current series that we’ve been manufacturing for Harley-Davidson in Dexter has remained the same for about seven years,” he explains. “They just went through a re-design. What’s coming is the replacement for Harley’s FL series. 

I’ve seen reports in 2013 about Polaris developing a (side-by-side) trike called the “Slingshot,” but have no more information on the Harley-Davdison 2017 “Slingshot” series.  If I get additional data I’ll update this post.

Photos courtesy of Faurecia. 

All Rights Reserved © Northwest Harley Blog

Read Full Post »

Cut-Away of 103 cu in “Twin-Cooled" Engine

Cut-Away of 103 cu in “Twin-Cooled” Engine

The ideal heat exchanger design and cooling calculations have been a major topic in the Harley-Davidson motorcycle community for some time.

The rumors that Harley-Davidson was eyeing a liquid-cooled motor design have been circling for years and now with the introduction of the 2014 models, it’s the first time (sans V-Rod), that the company jumped into the “water” with their touring models.

There were a number of changes which came out of the RUSHMORE project, but on the new touring models, the core ethos of change seems to start at the motor itself, where Harley-Davidson calls it “Twin-Cooled” cooling.  BMW calls their new partially water-cooled boxer engine setup “Precision Cooling.”

Backside Cut-Away of 103 cu in “Twin-Cooled” Engine

Backside Cut-Away of 103 cu in “Twin-Cooled” Engine

This is a little like the rabbit calling the donkey “Big Ears”… what’s in a name?!

Well everything if you’re a marketing jock.

You have to admit that “Precision” cooling implies something better and has a certain performance connotation attached to the name vs. “Twin-Cooled or the alternative “Partial” liquid-cooling.

The fact of the matter is that Harley-Davidson patented the clever way of adding liquid-cooling to its iconic V-twin motor design back in 2009.  Some elements of the design date back to 2007 when Erik Buell had a hand in the process.

Some of the patent specifics can be reviewed at:

  • US 2011/0114044 A1 – Nov 18, 2009 (File Date) May 19, 2011 (Publish Date) – CYLINDER HEAD COOLING SYSTEM
  • US 7654357 —  Jul 2, 2007 (File Date) Feb 2, 2010 (Publish Date) – Buell Motorcycle Company Radiator coil mounted on a motorcycle
  • US 20090008180 —  Jul 2, 2007 (File Date) Jan 8, 2009 (Publish Date) – Erik Buell Resilient mounting arrangement for a motorcycle radiator
Lower fairing coolant piping diagram

Early patent filing of lower fairing coolant diagram

At any rate, the “Twin-Cooled” system is thermostatically controlled, and uses an electric pump to circulate coolant.  The liquid coolant, is based on glycolethylene, the same coolant blend as in the V-Rod – a 50/50 premix that uses long life coolant.  It is routed through the cylinder heads, which is the most thermally stressed parts of the engine and in the area around the exhaust valves.  It’s then ducted to heat exchangers located in the left and right fairing lowers.  The new dual radiators are compact and the V-twin iconic barrel cooling fins remain.

Liquid-cooled Heads

Early patent filing of Liquid-cooled Heads

The expectation of this new setup is that riders won’t feel the crotch-melting temperatures in slow traffic because cylinder head temperatures are lower and the reshaped fairing lowers improve venting of cooler air to the rider and passenger.

Important to note is that the V-twin engines still use air/oil cooling for the barrel assemblies which to a certain “degree” retain that heritage of Harley’s air-cooled technology.  And the air cooling still does the heavy lifting.  Meaning it remains as a high percentage of the total cooling formula of the system.

Production Version of the Twin-Cooled Engine

Production version of the 2014 “Twin-Cooled” Engine

Harley-Davidson has yet to provide specs on the increased weight of the new cooling system vs. the previous air/oil cooling system.  But, it’s projected to be in the 10+ pound range, however, when has H-D been concerned with weight on the touring bikes given all the chrome dripping off those models.

There are a couple of oddities with the new liquid cooled change.  The first being that liquid cooling has no effect on service intervals.  Harleys with Twin-Cooled or standard air/oil cooled engines require service after the first 1,000 miles, and 5,000 miles thereafter.  And unlike oil and air-cooled engines which adjust timing to avoid spark knock as temperatures increase, Twin-Cooled engines retain the same timing.  I’m not sure what’s behind the thinking on this.

In addition, you might think that Harley boosted engine output.  They did, between 5 and 7%, but it wasn’t all due to liquid-cooled heads.  They also applied new cam profiles with higher lift and duration, which aids overall performance on both the standard and Twin-Cooled engines.

I’ve heard some rumblings from a riding buddy with contacts at the Arizona Test Track, that Harley-Davidson is having some issues with the 110 cu. in. Twin-Cooled ability to truly keep the heads cool(er).  This might be a first year implementation issue, but I believe Harley’s Twin-Cooling system is here to stay, and will likely expand throughout their lineup of motorcycles.

Photo of cut-away engine taken by author at 110th Anniversary factory tours, all others courtesy of H-D.

All Rights Reserved © Northwest Harley Blog

Read Full Post »

Mabel's Rage - Bud Clarke (L)

The Band Mabel’s Rage – Bud Clarke (L)

In a remote part of the country sits a nondescript hangar… I’m not talking about the NSA facility in Utah where “The Company” is so paranoid about outsiders catching a glimpse of its e-snooping gear, that server cages are kept in complete darkness and service tech’s are outfitted with lights on their head like coal miners.

An impressive operation, but NSA it’s not.

I’m referring to the Helena Montana Regional Airport where an Alberta native, Bud Clarke, builds airplanes when not riding his Harley.  The firm, Air-Ryder primarily works on “builder assisted” aircraft.  Finishing the final touches on planes built by Lancair, based here in Oregon who manufacture several “high performance” airplane kits that seat from two to four people and can cost upwards to six-figures.

The OilBud™

The OilBud™

But the tinkering didn’t stop with the sophisticated planes, Clarke also invented a unique motorcycle oil cooler called the OilBud™.  The device fits between the motorcycle frame rails and is hidden from view beneath the motor.  It’s built from aircraft quality materials, braided stainless hoses and 6061-T6 aluminum extrusion and a welded in header tank assembly.

Last month Clarke announced an updated design which provides Harley-Davidson owners who’ve added modifications to their motorcycle (i.e. Baker Oil Pans, True-Track, Center Stands and Softails outfitted with ABS) the ability to install an OilBud™ and will keep the oil temperature 30 degrees cooler or more than an engine without the device.

In Helena, Clarke is better known as a guitar player in Mabel’s Rage.  The band’s name is a reference to a scene in the comic opera “Pirates of Penzance” in which Mabel, a tomboy pirate, is getting cinched up in a corset and is quite begrudged.  Clarke for the most part writes the music and lead singer Gina Satterfield writes the lyrics.  I especially like the fact that they are supporting a benefit concert later this summer for Wounded Warriors.

I’ve had the opportunity to ride some great roads in Montana; Route 12, Lolo Pass, Highway 200, Highway 86 and 89 from Bozeman, but I’ve not traveled much in the Helena area.  I hope to do so one of these days.  And when I do I’ll be thinking about Clarke and Mabel’s Rage.

I encourage you to check out the music and if you’re experiencing oil temperature issues to read up on the OilBud™ and investigate the various reviews at Baggers Magazine or Hot Bike.

Photos courtesy of OilBud™ and Mabel’s Rage.

All Rights Reserved © Northwest Harley Blog

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »

%d bloggers like this: